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The Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, was replaced by the Paris Agreement in 2015. The Kyoto Protocol was a landmark agreement signed in 1997 by nearly 200 countries that committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions to help combat climate change. However, it did not include major polluters such as China and the United States, which both refused to ratify the treaty.

The Paris Agreement, on the other hand, was signed by over 190 countries, including China and the United States, which are the two largest carbon emitters in the world. The agreement aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. This is a significant improvement from the Kyoto Protocol`s target of reducing emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels by 2012.

The Paris Agreement also includes mechanisms for countries to regularly review and increase their emission reduction targets every five years, starting in 2023. It also includes provisions for developed countries to provide financial and technical support to developing countries to help them shift to cleaner, low-carbon economies.

While the Paris Agreement has been widely hailed as a significant step forward in the fight against climate change, it has also faced criticism. Some experts have argued that the targets set in the agreement are not ambitious enough and that more needs to be done to limit global warming to safe levels. Others have criticized the lack of binding enforcement mechanisms in the agreement, meaning that countries are not legally obligated to meet their emission reduction targets.

Despite these criticisms, the Paris Agreement represents a major milestone in global efforts to combat climate change. It has brought together countries from around the world to work towards a common goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and limiting global warming. As we continue to face the effects of climate change, it is crucial that we continue to work together to find solutions and take action to protect our planet for future generations.